As one of the most important photoelectrode materials, cuprous oxide(Cu<inf>2</inf>O)has attracted much attention in photoelectrochemical(PEC)water splitting and CO<inf>2</inf> reduction due to its advantages of suitable bandgap, well photoresponse and low cost. This review summarizes the latest progress on the preparation methods of Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrodes, such as electrochemistry, PVD, dip-coating, thermal oxidation and chemical bath deposition. The summarized methods are compared in details. Notably, this review provides valuable reference to designing and constructing PEC photoelectrodes based on other transition metal oxide semiconductors. In addition, the practical application of Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrodes is confined by its poor stability due to its self-photocorrosion in electrolyte solutions. This review outlines commonly used modification methods to enhance photostability and PEC performance of Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrodes, including surface modification, fabrication of semiconductor composites, etc. In the end, this review points out that the future research directions of Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrode should aim at exploring novel methods to fabricate Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrodes, inventing novel modification methods and integrating multiple modification methods in order to further enhance the PEC performance and application prospect of Cu<inf>2</inf>O photoelectrodes.<br/> ©2018, Chemical Industry Press. All right reserved.